Since then, the government has introduced a stopgap bill that allows it to make payments to farmers by 2020 – payments that must be made before the new agriculture law to be in the code. Most people would put another bill on the Brexit list: the clause of 130 (and 20 calendar) the ecological bill developed in Defra under Michael Gove. There is one final point of disagreement. These are all British bills – but they affect all the powers of the devolved administrations. The British government has stopped the WAB, although all devolved lawmakers have refused legislative approval – this is the first time this has ever been the case. The trade law is necessary to enable ministers to implement existing trade agreements that will be implemented after the EU withdrawal – and to lead the UK`s trade defence policy by creating a new Quango, the Trade Remedies Authority. Both have been under exclusive jurisdiction since the EU`s accession in 1973, making the provisions clearly necessary. The bill has been slightly amended since its purist version under Theresa May, under pressure from farmers who were concerned about the lack of mentions of food production or food security. But in the last Parliament, MPs saw the bill as a way to insist that the UK should not withdraw from high animal welfare or environmental standards in future trade agreements. We do not yet know how the British government intends to play it, but Parliament could try to influence the negotiations through the bill. Again, it is likely that the government will resist unless it sees an advantage in referring to parliamentary pressure in the negotiations.

In 2019, a dispute was dominated between the government and parliament over whether, when and how the UK would leave the EU. Parliament`s figures have forced Theresa May to compromise – and have tried to appease her own bankers, the DUP and some Labour MPs. Their strategy ultimately failed. But the result of Boris Johnson`s election means that 2020 will be very different. This is incorporated into the changes it has made to the most recent version of the withdrawal agreement, as well as in the national legislation necessary to implement the withdrawal agreement with the EU and to the ratification of the treaty by the government. Of course, the government can always work with MPs – for example, regular updates – without legislating. But the removal of these provisions in the term wad means that Parliament will return much more in 2020. The government has also amended another important Brexit law, the EU Withdrawal Act 2018, to water down the obligation of an agreement on unaccompanied children seeking asylum to join family members. With a majority, Johnson was able to remove some of the concessions May had to make when the law was passed. In addition to the WAB, the Queen`s Speech listed six other laws on Brexit: agriculture, fishing, immigration, trade, financial services and private international law.

The Fisheries Act is intended to give the government the powers it needs to regain control of British fishing waters. The powers themselves are not very important: the agreement that the UK is negotiating with the EU is decisive. The EU is trying to reach an agreement quickly on continued access to Uk waters after Brexit for EU fishing fleets, which may be a precondition for a more comprehensive trade deal. But there will be many more Laws on Brexit – and at least for the most part they could prove controversial. Most of them are not new: Theresa May`s government has introduced a number of Brexit bills – but the big ones have been blocked because their precarious parliamentary position has made them vulnerable to the amendment. The same could be said of these bills as another showdown between Whitehall and Westminster and Holyrood, Cardiff and Belfast. The government also made a lot of noise during the extension of the transition period, including a possible obligation to